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Sleeping in the Dust

  • There are many bible verses that seem to confirm soul sleep.
  • These verses refer to the dead as sleeping, or being asleep.
  • However, there are many other verses that refute the idea of the dead being unconscious, in a state of soul sleep.
  • Why are the dead described as being asleep, or as sleeping in the "dust of the earth", if they are not literally asleep?
  • The concept of soul sleep has important spiritual implications, that will be overlooked if it is taken literally.

Soul sleep is a figure of speech, conveying to us the ongoing spiritual reality of an individual after death.

So if I'm right, and soul sleep is not scriptural, why are there so many bible verses that clearly refer to the dead as being asleep, "Consider and hear me, O LORD my God: lighten mine eyes, lest I sleep the sleep of death" (Psalm 13.3 KJV bible), "You turn man back into dust...You have swept them away like a flood, they fall asleep" (Psalm 90.3,5 NASB bible), "And when thy days be fulfilled, and thou shalt sleep with thy fathers" (2nd Samuel 7.12 KJV bible), "After that, he was seen of above five hundred brethren at once; of whom the greater part remain unto this present, but some are fallen asleep" (1st Corinthians 15.6 KJV bible), "We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed" (1st Corinthians 15.51 KJV bible)? These verses clearly refer to the dead, even the righteous dead, as being asleep.

The bible refers to the dead as sleeping, not because they are literally unconscious, but rather it is a euphemism for death. Sleeping is a euphemism that conveys to us the sense that death is not the absolute end or extinction of an individual, but rather it is a transitory separation. When someone is asleep they are still alive, but disconnected from the world. Likewise, a deceased person still exists, but in a different place that is not accessible to us. We have a similar tradition in our culture, where instead of saying that someone is dead, we say that the person has "passed on" or "departed". Families will often write "rest in peace" (or some variation thereof) on a tombstone. This is all done not out of the belief that the dead are literally asleep, but out of a sensitivity to the notion of death. In both cases, the dead are described as being asleep, or having passed on, to convey to us the temporary nature of their separation.

Consider Acts 7, where Stephen is described as falling asleep, "And they stoned Stephen, calling upon God, and saying, Lord Jesus, receive my spirit. And he kneeled down, and cried with a loud voice, Lord, lay not this sin to their charge. And when he had said this, he fell asleep" (Acts 7.59-60 KJV bible). The writer of Acts says that Stephen fell asleep, but Stephen himself says to the Lord Jesus, "receive my spirit". Is there a difference of opinion about the afterlife between Luke, who is the writer of Acts, and Stephen who apparently was under the impression that Jesus would receive his spirit? If we understand the use of the term "fell asleep", to be a simple indication of Stephen's physical death, then there is no contradiction.

This is also consistent with Jesus' description of Lazarus as sleeping, "Our friend Lazarus sleepeth; but I go, that I may awake him out of sleep. Then said his disciples, Lord, if he sleep, he shall do well. Howbeit Jesus spake of his death: but they thought that he had spoken of taking of rest in sleep. Then said Jesus unto them plainly, Lazarus is dead" (John 11.11-14 KJV bible). Jesus first describes Lazarus as being asleep, but his apostles take this literally to mean that Lazarus is still alive. Then Jesus says plainly that Lazarus is dead, at which point his apostles understand what he means. When Jesus says that Lazarus is sleeping, it says that he "spake of his death", which indicates that he was using the term figuratively.

Many are described as "sleeping in the dust of the earth".

Well then what about the dead who are said to be sleeping in the dust of the earth? Wouldn't the phrase "dust of the earth", indicate that they are literally asleep in the ground, "And many [or the multitude] of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake" (Daniel 12.2 KJV bible), "for now shall I sleep in the dust; and thou shalt seek me in the morning, but I shall not be" (Job 7.21 KJV bible)? If they are not literally asleep, then why are they described as dwelling in the dust of the earth?

Recall from the section on gateways to heaven and hell, that there is a strong association between the first hell, or Hades, and the dust of the earth. The dust of the earth both symbolizes, and acts as the gateway to the underworld, "What profit is there in my blood, if I go down to the pit? Will the dust praise You? Will it declare Your faithfulness?" (Psalm 30.9 NASB bible), "All they that be fat upon earth shall eat and worship: all they that go down to the dust shall bow before him: and none can keep alive his own soul" (Psalm 22.29 KJV bible). Sleeping in the dust of the earth simply refers to the spirits of people who dwell in Hades as opposed to heaven. They are described as sleeping in the dust, because the dust of the earth is used as a biblical symbol for the underworld.

The dust of the earth acts a symbol for both Hades and spiritual death. This is why in the second resurrection, the dead are described as being released from the dust of the earth, "Awake and sing, ye that dwell in dust: for thy dew is as the dew of herbs, and the earth shall cast out the dead" (Isaiah 26.19 KJV bible). So the souls of the dead dwell figuratively, not literally, in the dust of the earth. Also, notice that the saints are never referred to as sleeping in the dust, but only in Christ, "Then they also which are fallen asleep in Christ are perished" (1st Corinthians 15.18 KJV bible). The ones who have fallen asleep in Christ have in no way perished, because they are with the Lord in heaven, (see ch.4 Souls in Heaven). However, the rest of the dead dwell in the underworld, as embodied by the dust of the earth.

Many verses describe the degraded state of the dead, but do not support literal soul sleep.

Let's also consider some other verses that might appear to support the notion of soul sleep. For example, what about Psalm 146.4 which seems to imply that the dead are lifeless in thought as well as action, "Put not your trust in princes, nor in the son of man, in whom there is no help. His breath goeth forth, he returneth to his earth; in that very day his thoughts perish" (Psalm 146.4 KJV bible). Looking at the context of this passage we come to understand that it is speaking about mortal man, and how we shouldn't put our confidence in him. This is because when he dies his thoughts perish with him, in the sense that his plans, ideas, and worldly influence come to naught.

This same reasoning holds true for Ecclesiastes 9.6, "Also their love, and their hatred, and their envy, is now perished; neither have they any more a portion for ever in any thing that is done under the sun" (Ecclesiastes 9.6 KJV bible). It says that they no longer have a portion in what goes on under the sun, meaning that all of their love, hatred, and envy disappears with them. In other words, they become inconsequential to the land of the living, not that they cease to be in an absolute way.

A soul that is absent from a body is certainly cognizant, (see ch.12 Soul Sleep). However, there is some evidence to suggest that it exists in a reduced mental capacity, and experiences reality differently from a soul that is dwelling within a functioning body. We know, for example, that people with Alzheimer's (and other degenerative diseases of the brain) are often confused, and less capable of understanding and interacting with the world around them. Also, when people go to sleep at night, and their brains rest, their thoughts change, becoming more random and unfocused. It is therefore probable, that people who are disembodied souls, and lack the computing power of a brain, don't experience reality or the passage of time the same way we do. They lose the progressive history of thoughts and memories that our mental faculties provide us. Their sense of perception becomes surreal and nebulous, similar to what we experience when we dream at night. They still have thoughts and feelings that they can communicate, but are unable to carry out complex flesh-like activities that require concentration or brain power.

This is why Sheol is described as the land of forgetfulness or oblivion, "Shall thy wonders be known in the dark? and thy righteousness in the land of forgetfulness?" (Psalms 88.12 KJV bible). This is also why it is written in Ecclesiastes, "For the living know that they shall die: but the dead know not any thing...Whatsoever thy hand findeth to do, do it with thy might; for there is no work, nor device, nor knowledge, nor wisdom, in the grave [Sheol], whither thou goest" (Ecclesiastes 9.5,10 KJV bible). However, the degraded condition of the dead shouldn't be seen as a confirmation of soul sleep, because soul sleep implies a complete suspension of the individual. Rather, this is the idea that the experience of being dead is different and less vivid than the experience of being alive, but it is an experience none the less. This degraded condition is part of what the dead will be raised up from in the Resurrection of the Dead.


Clifford      04 Aug 2009, 10:33

Good Day

Just a comment on the soul sleep section of your web site.

Joh 14:1 Let not your heart be troubled: ye believe in God, believe also in me.
Joh 14:2 In my Father's house are many mansions: if it were not so, I would have told you. I go to prepare a place for you.
Joh 14:3 And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again, and receive you unto myself; that where I am, there ye may be also.

Here Jesus is talking to His disciples and He knew they will be dead when He will return to receive them unto Himself with His return. Where do you suppose we are now if we are dead and not with Jesus? These are the words of Jesus.

I will come again, and receive you unto myself; that where I am, there ye may be also.

Love God with everything in you and your neighbor like yourself. If you are in Jesus I will see you at the tree. The tree of live in heaven. Amen

Kind Regards
Clifford Samuelson

Doug Buckley      04 Aug 2009, 16:24

Hello Clifford,
John 14.1-3 are interesting verses, in that they really don't have to do with going to heaven, as much as the first Resurrection of the Dead.
Every Christian, whether alive on earth or in heaven, is awaiting the time when they will be fully received back to the Lord. At this time they will be changed into spiritual bodies, and receive their eternal inheritance in God's Kingdom. This is the "place" that is awaiting them. Whether on earth or in heaven, they will receive this reward at Christ's return, and be united with him as the possession he has purchased from death. I go into much more detail about this in ch.15 (bottom section), and also ch.21 relates. - Regards

Craig      02 Oct 2009, 14:58

What Clifford was trying to say is that Jesus was referring to the desciples' resurrection, not death. He will come to get them at the resurrection. Very clear. The traditional belief of separation of the mind from the body is a fallacy. The masses are not in heaven in any form. Their spirits (lives) were temporarily taken, but not until the resurrection will these souls (people) go to be with Jesus.

Doug Buckley      04 Oct 2009, 10:16

Hi Craig,
We are all in agreement that John 14.1-3 refers to the Resurrection of the Dead, at the return of Christ. So then the issue is if the saints who have passed on are with Jesus in heaven, then why does he say "I will receive you to myself" at the second advent?

The answer is because even though the saints are in heaven, they are not yet fully reconciled or "received" by the Lord on a spiritual level. Christians are the bride of Christ, and even though they dwell with him in heaven, it is only at the second advent that their eternal relationship and communion will be realized (Matthew 25.1-13). Ch.21 goes into this more.

I believe that the the traditional view of people having both a flesh body and a spiritual soul is strongly supported in both the Old and New Testaments. This is why in Revelation 6.9-11, the souls of the dead are depicted in heaven before the first resurrection. Chapters 4,9, and especially ch.10 delve more into this subject.

stephen      27 Nov 2009, 21:32

But Doug, there is not one single scripture that says the soul or spirit will join with the body at the resurrection. The Bible has always been consistant with the resurrection. If our souls are already in heaven then why would Jesus resurrect us from the dead? How can you be alive in two places at once?

Like I have said, there is not one single scripture that says Jesus only resurrects the body to join with the soul or spirit that are already in heaven.

God bless

Doug Buckley      28 Nov 2009, 16:14

Hi Stephen,
I agree with you that you can't be alive in two places at once. The Resurrection of the Dead is fundamentally a spiritual resurrection, where the soul is transformed into a spiritual body, and receives its eternal place and inheritance (see ch.15). This transformation happens from wherever the soul is at the time. The ones in heaven are "dead" in the sense that their flesh has died, and they have passed on from this world.

Stephen      21 Mar 2010, 16:38

Hi Doug

If people are already in heaven then how can the dead in the grave hear his voice at the resurrection (John 5:28) In order to come alive out of the grave then would you not have to be in the grave? How can you hear his voice and come alive out the grave if you are already alive in heaven?

God bless

Doug Buckley      22 Mar 2010, 16:05

Hi Stephen, (alot of Stephens here),
John 5.28 refers not to the first, but to the second resurrection of the dead. Those who dwell spiritually in the tombs are the same ones that dwell spiritually in the dust of the earth. The tombs, graves, or dust of the earth are all used as symbols for spiritual death, "their throats are open graves" (Romans 3.13). When the dead are spiritually raised from the "dust" or "graves" they will be judged. Therefore, for some it will be a resurrection unto life, but for others a resurrection unto damnation. God bless.

clinton      14 May 2010, 09:59

Why did Jesus say the NO man has ascended into Heaven, but, he himself.
Peter also preached the same thing about David on pentecost.
Why does the bible say that we are to look for a New Earth wherein dwelleth righteousnous?
God Bless

Doug Buckley      14 May 2010, 16:42

Hi Clinton, God Bless
There is a difference between an ascension, and being received into heaven as Enoch and Elijah were (see ch.4 Souls in Heaven). As to the new earth, the souls in heaven are coming back to earth with Christ (1st Thessalonians 4.14). They will all be changed in the first resurrection (1st Corinthians 15.51-53), and then after the millennium there will be a new earth and heavens.

Rafael      28 Jan 2011, 18:41

The first resurrection belongs to the "elect ones". They will be priests and kings with Jesus to rule over the earth. Only they will be in heaven. The rest of humankind will live on earth. If all saved christians are going to be kings and priest...over whom they will rule?

Doug Buckley      29 Jan 2011, 13:24

Hi Rafael, yes the first resurrection will not be the ones who are asleep in the dust, but the ones who sleep in Christ (1st Thessalonians 4.14). Christ will bring all of the saints or elect ones with him when he returns to earth. If they reign in heaven then who are they reigning over? I believe that Christ will reign here on earth until all his enemies are made his footstool. Then the ones who spiritually "sleep in the dust" (ie nonbelievers) will be resurrected. Maybe check out my series of articles about the millennium, or keep reading as I go deeper into this.

alfredo      11 Jun 2011, 16:36

Hi Doug,

The first argument one will say is that spirit basically means "breath" (pneuma)gk. They will use this to say that the "breath of life" has departed back to God, not the actual person. The soul, who basically is the person, dies. And they will of course use Ez 18.4 and Ecc 9.5-6 to say the person is dead, not in heaven or hades. How do we argue this. I believe what you have been writing in the chapters. But i know one will come with this argument.

Doug Buckley      12 Jun 2011, 17:08

Hi Alfredo, this chapter is more about soul sleep and sleeping the dust and the deeper meaning of what they mean. Sleeping in the dust refers to spiritual death in Hades, and so does Ezekiel 18.4. There is also a spirit or breath of life in every person, that is not a soul and is different from a soul (see ch. 11). In Eccliastes 9.5-6, Solomon is speaking from the perspective of the world, that the dead are gone, no longer partaking of the things of the world.

Eric      13 Jun 2011, 11:02

You said that those that are "sleeping in the dust" are non-believers. Is it possible that instead of just non-believers, could they be those that have never been baptised? i.e. those that were on the earth before Christ came gave His life for us on the cross. The reason I ask this is that the scripture in question (Daniel, in summary) says that they would be judged based on whether they were good or bad people.

Doug Buckley      13 Jun 2011, 22:55

Hi Eric, I'm assuming that you're talking about Daniel 12.2, which refers to the awakening of those that sleep in the dust. This is the 2nd resurrection of the dead when the people are released from Hades for judgment. So I think we basically agree that those who sleep in the dust are all the people who didn't go to heaven. Therefore, it is the ones who have not received forgiveness for their sins that sleep in the dust. However, I believe that some people were forgiven and did go to heaven before Christ's crucifixion (see chapter 4).

Raquel      11 Dec 2011, 01:11

"Dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return." Gen 3:19.
"Multitudes who sleep in the dust of the earth will awake: some to everlasting life, others to shame and everlasting contempt." Dan 12:2
"After he had said this, he went on to tell them, 'Our friend Lazarus has fallen asleep; but I am going there to wake him up.' His disciples replied, 'Lord, if he sleeps, he will get better.' Jesus had been speaking of his death, but his disciples thought he meant natural sleep. So then he told them plainly, 'Lazarus is dead...'" John 11:11-14
Notice how Jesus stated that Lazarus was dead, but at the same time described death as a condition like sleep. Those who die do not go to heaven or to hell. They remain in a figurative state of sleep. The dead are turned into dust and remain unconscious. Then, when the second advent of Christ comes, "the dead in Christ will rise" (1 Thess. 4:16) and will then be with the Lord in the heavens forever.

Doug Buckley      12 Dec 2011, 01:52

Raquel, it's a leap that because Jesus uses the word "sleep" to describe Lazarus' death that the dead are unconscious or asleep. Maybe the term "sleep" is a euphemism for death. To us they are asleep, not completely gone, but not with us.

Notice what what 1st Thessalonians 4 says. Those who "sleep in Christ" will return with him, "For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so them also that are fallen asleep in Jesus will God bring with him" (1st Thessalonians 4.14 KJV bible). In order to return with him, so that we can be gathered to them, those sleeping in Christ must already be with him, in heaven. This is why the gospels say, "And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other" (Matthew 24.31 KJV bible).

Yon      20 Dec 2011, 19:46

Good people. In reading through all these comments there is evidence of heartfelt belief, but in my opinion no clear evidence as to the meaning of "Sleeping in the Dust". There is a great mystery around death. Do we immediately go to heaven? That is a belief and hope for many. Maybe that is why "rest" and "peace" are often referenced for the death of our loved ones. There are times when I find myself asleep/ dead to this world and alive in the spirit. There may be a certain degree of sleep/ death even as our soul/ spirit is with our bodies or without. As such, some may feel that not all are “sleeping in the dust”. Why would some be asleep? Although not everything is clear, we should draw comfort knowing that Jesus Christ conquered sin (death). I believe that "Sleeping in the Dust" is a form of death. This may be likened to death and confinement in our current bodies and the flesh which withers away like dust. In that our soul/ spirit is no longer confined to the earthly limitations such as time and gravity etc., and we can be considered in heaven or rather in transition to heaven/ paradise. The following is just a thought that crossed my mind. Will our essence, spirit, our very soul stay in a box, or with our ashes that are spread in the ocean, or tossed in the air to freely go and sleep where it lands? I do not believe this. When we succumb are we separated from our bodies and also from earth? I think this is where many stumble and are of the belief that if they choose anything contrary to what they’ve heard or read it is implausible or in error. I’m not convinced we are in a dormant sleep when we pass, although there is a part of me that feels we are neither in paradise. Perhaps some of the mystery is in references like new heavens and a new earth as in 2 Peter 3:13 and Revelation 21:1. Or with Revelation 20:4 where it speaks about the thousand year reign of Christ with those who remained faithful to Him. Hence, unless we have experienced the afterlife, we really don’t know.
Blessings of Hope, Peace and Love!!!
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