The White Throne Judgment is a future event when the Lord will judge human souls. The White Throne Judgment will be a final hour of decision, when the chaff is eternally removed from the world.
The White Throne Judgment is a future event that's described in Revelation, and mentioned in many other places. In the White Throne Judgment, all the dead ones will be raised from the underworld and judged according to their works. The ones found written in the book will receive eternal life, but the rest will be cast into the Lake of Fire.
The book of Revelation depicts the White Throne Judgment, "And I saw a great white throne, and him that sat on it, from whose face the earth and the heaven fled away; and there was found no place for them. And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God; and the books were opened: and another book was opened, which is the book of life: and the dead were judged out of those things which were written in the books, according to their works. And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hell [Hades] delivered up the dead which were in them: and they were judged every man according to their works. And death and hell [Hades] were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death. And whosoever was not found written in the book of life was cast into the lake of fire." (Revelation 20.11-15 KJV bible).
It's commonly taught that when a person dies their soul goes to eternal heaven or eternal hell. Those who have faith in Jesus go to heaven, but everyone else goes to hell. According to this view, the judgment of the soul is immediate upon death. The person receives their place in eternity when they leave this world.
The great White Throne Judgment gives us a different view of the afterlife. It informs us that in the future, all the "dead" will be released from Hades, and judged according to their works, "And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hell [Hades] delivered up the dead which were in them: and they were judged every man according to their works" (Revelation 20.13 KJV bible).
So whereas the faithful have salvation with Jesus, the rest of humanity follows a different path. At the end of the world the rest of humanity will be raised up from the destruction of Hades. They will not be left forgotten in the underworld, but resurrected for a final purpose.
In the end, they will be raised for a final judgment. Their works, both good and evil, will be remembered. Then some will be forgiven and receive eternal life, but others will receive eternal condemnation. The White Throne Judgment will be a day of reckoning for the great multitudes of unbelievers (see Can Unbelievers be Saved?).
This leads us to Matthew 25, where Jesus describes the White Throne Judgment. It is a separation of sheep from goats, "And before him shall be gathered all nations: and he shall separate them one from another, as a shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats: And he shall set the sheep on his right hand, but the goats on the left. And these shall go away into everlasting punishment: but the righteous into life eternal" (Matthew 25.32-33,46 KJV bible).
In the White Throne Judgment, Jesus will divide the unbelievers into two groups. The ones who have been compassionate and merciful to others will be among the sheep, "And the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these my brethren, ye have done it unto me" (Matthew 25.40 KJV bible).
However, the ones who have been selfish and cruel will be numbered with the goats, "Then shall he answer them, saying, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye did it not to one of the least of these, ye did it not to me" (Matthew 25.45 KJV bible). These ones will take part in the second death.
In the White Throne Judgment people will receive eternal salvation or eternal damnation. However, there is a period of time that comes before this final judgment. There will be a period of tribulation and wrath when Jesus returns. The time of wrath comes first and prepares the world for the final judgment. These different times should not be condfused.
Regarding this time, Jesus says, "And that servant, which knew his lord's will, and prepared not himself, neither did according to his will, shall be beaten with many stripes. But he that knew not, and did commit things worthy of stripes, shall be beaten with few stripes..." (Luke 12.47-48 KJV bible).
The second advent will be a time of wrath upon the world. Many will be cast down and disgraced, but others will be lifted up, "Seeing it is a righteous thing with God to recompense tribulation to them that trouble you; And to you who are troubled rest with us, when the Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven with his mighty angels" (2nd Thessalonians 1.6-7 KJV bible).
When Jesus returns he will slay the wicked with the sword of his mouth. He will tear down the worldly kingdoms that oppose him, "For the day of the LORD is near upon all the heathen: as thou hast done, it shall be done unto thee: thy reward shall return upon thine own head" (Obadiah 1.15 KJV bible).
In the time of wrath, judgment starts at the house of God, "Then you will begin to say, We ate and drank in Your presence, and You taught in our streets. And He will say, I tell you I do not know you, from where you are. "Stand back from Me all workers of unrighteousness!" There will be weeping and gnashing of the teeth when you see Abraham and Isaac and Jacob and all the prophets in the kingdom of God, but yourselves being thrust outside" (Luke 13:26-28 LITV bible).
So we understand there will be two future times of judgment. First, there will be wrath and tribulation when Jesus returns. Then later the great White Throne Judgment will take place. The gap of time between Jesus' return and the final judgment is known as the millennium.
The White Throne Judgment will be a final hour of decision for all mankind. At this time the evil ones will be excised from the world, and the righteous will live forever in the Kingdom of God. The wheat will be gathered from the chaff, and the chaff will be eternally destroyed.
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